The interactions between a bond surface and an adhesive that determine the strength and reliability of a bonded structure occur in a zone that is perhaps 1 nanometer thick. This interactive tutorial provides a comprehensive look at the characteristics of a bond surface that determine bond performance, how to establish these characteristics through surface preparation, and how to quantify them for quality assurance. We will review common industry practices, including typical surface preparation methods for composites and an overview of the basic scientific principles involved in measuring surface composition and surface energy and how these relate to material performance in manufacturing and repair.